The 2018 Agreement To Prevent Unregulated High Seas Fisheries In The Central Arctic Ocean

In 2010, the United States effectively closed its EEZ in northern Alaska for commercial fishing. Canada followed in 2014 with the Beaufort Sea Fish Management Framework, a partnership between Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Inuvialuit Regional Corporation, Inuvialuit Game Council and Fisheries Joint Management Committee. It states that “potential commercial fisheries are considered only in light of scientifically transferable estimates of surplus and sustainable stocks” (Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2009). Thus, the geographical scope of caoFA is characterized by purely legal aspects rather than an ecosystem approach such as the Convention area of the Commission on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). However, the usual terminology in fisheries agreements is `areas under national jurisdiction` and not `exercise … Jurisdiction of the proceedings”. This wording seems to have been chosen to avoid any implicit statement about the status of the waters surrounding Svalbard (or Svalbard), in which Norway exercises fisheries jurisdiction. In particular, Norway, whose sovereignty over Svalbard was recognised by Article 2 of the 1920 Treaty of Svalbard, has proclaimed a Fisheries Protection Zone (SFPZ) around Svalbard (see map). All A5+5s, with the exception of the EU, are parties to the Svalbard Treaty (several EU Member States are also contracting parties).

The issue of the SFPZ is a delicate one, as Article 2 of the Svalbard Treaty states that “hips and nationals of all high contracting parties shall enjoy in the same way the rights of fishing [in the territorial waters of Svalbard]”. Norway asserts that the term “territorial waters” does not cover the SFPZ and that the right to equal access does not apply to the SFPZ. Others argue that the term `territorial waters` must be interpreted dynamically in the light of the objective and objective of the Svalbard Treaty, which means that Norway must grant equal access to fisheries within the SFPZ. The issue has recently gained new momentum following a dispute between the EU (notably the Baltic States) and Norway over access to local snow crab fishing. NOAA joined the State Department as part of a U.S. delegation at the Oct. 3 signing of the Agreement on the Prevention of Unregulated High Seas Fishing in the Central Arctic Ocean (CAO) on Oct. 3. The historic agreement constitutes a cooperative and preventive approach by ten countries in the management of high seas fish stocks in the central Arctic Ocean. The agreement covers about 2.8 million square kilometres, an area roughly as large as the Mediterranean. Arctic Ocean with Ice, Snow and Water Near Cracks in ice This agreement provides a framework for Canada and other parties to: this agreement provides a framework for the parties to work together to better understand ecosystems in and next to the central Arctic Ocean.

It prevents commercial fishing from taking place until adequate scientific information is available to make decisions on the viability and sustainability of potential future fishing activities in the Agreement Area. . . .